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  • 实验室装修中的废气工艺流程要注意什么?
    来源:http://www.jnyhrs.com 浏览: 发布日期:2020-09-25
    活性炭吸附原理
    Adsorption principle of activated carbon
    活性炭是一种主要由含碳材料制成的外观呈黑色,内部空隙结构发达、比表面积大、吸附能力强的一类微晶质碳素材料。 活性炭材料中有大量肉眼看不见的微孔,1克活性炭材料中微孔,将其展开后表面积可高达 800-1500平方米,特殊的更高。也就是说,在一个米粒大小的活性炭颗粒中,微孔的内表面积可能相当于一个客厅面积的大小。正是这些高度发达,如人体毛细血管般的空隙结构,使活性炭拥有了优良的吸附性能。
    Activated carbon is a kind of microcrystalline carbon material which is mainly made of carbon containing materials with black appearance, developed internal void structure, large specific surface area and strong adsorption capacity. There are a lot of micro holes in the activated carbon materials which are invisible to the naked eye. The surface area of the activated carbon material can reach 800-1500 square meters after expansion, especially higher. That is, in a rice size activated carbon particle, the inner surface area of the microporous may be equivalent to the size of a living room area. It is these highly developed, such as capillary like pore structure, so that activated carbon has excellent adsorption performance.
    分子之间相互吸附的作用力即“范德华力” 。虽然分子运动速度受温度和材质等原因的影响,但它在微环境下始终是不停运动的。由于分子之间拥有相互吸引的作用力,当一个分子被活性炭内孔捕捉进入到活性炭内空隙中后,由于分子之间相互吸引的原因,会导致更多的分子不断被吸引,直到填满活性炭内部空隙为止。
    The interaction force between molecules is the van der Waals force. Although the molecular velocity is affected by temperature and material, it is always moving in micro environment. Because of the mutual attraction force between molecules, when a molecule is captured into the space in the activated carbon by the inner hole of activated carbon, more molecules will be attracted until the inner space of activated carbon is filled.
    活性炭脱附方法
    Method of desorption of activated carbon
    当活性炭内部空隙被有机废气即被吸附物质填满而达到饱和时,污染物便开始被释放出来,这种现象称为穿透。达到饱和的活性炭吸附床需要进行再生,一般采用加热的气体对吸附床进行脱附,一方面使吸附床再生重新具有活性,一方面是污染物被解脱出来进行回收或 分解处理。这种脱附方法称为升温脱附。物质的吸附量是随温度的升高而减小的,将吸附剂的温度升高,可以使已被吸附的组分脱附下来,这种方法也称为变温脱附,整个过程中的温度是周期变化的。
    实验室装修
    When the void inside the activated carbon is filled with organic waste gas, the adsorbed substance is filled and saturated, the pollutants are released, which is called penetration. The adsorption bed of saturated activated carbon needs to be regenerated. Generally, the heated gas is used to desorption the adsorption bed. On the one hand, the regeneration of the adsorption bed is reactivated, on the one hand, the pollutants are released for recovery or decomposition treatment. This desorption method is called the temperature rising desorption. The adsorption capacity of the substance decreases with the increase of temperature. The temperature of the adsorbent can be increased to remove the adsorbed components. This method is also called variable temperature desorption. The temperature in the whole process is periodic.
    对无机废气采用液体吸收法,其吸收效率可达90%以上。液体吸收法是无机气体净化的常用处理工艺,工艺技术相当成熟,且稳定可靠。以液体为吸收剂,通过洗涤收集装置使废气中的有害成分被液体吸收,从而达到净化的目的。该吸收系统属于气膜控制吸收过程,采用液相分散型装置,即喷淋填料塔。其工作时吸收液通 过填料塔顶部的喷淋装置被均匀的喷洒在填料层顶部,并沿着填料层自上而下呈膜状流动,而废气则自塔下部进入,穿过填料层从塔顶排出。在此过程中,废气被迫多次改变方向、速度与吸收液不断碰撞、接触,使废气与吸收液在填料层中有充分接触反应时间,令废气中有害成分能够被吸收液充分吸收净化。 净化后的气体经塔内除雾后可达标排放。
    The absorption efficiency of inorganic waste gas can reach more than 90% by liquid absorption method. Liquid absorption is a common process for inorganic gas purification, and the technology is mature and stable. The harmful components in the waste gas are absorbed by the liquid through the washing and collecting device, so as to achieve the purpose of purification. The absorption system belongs to the process of gas film control absorption, and adopts liquid-phase dispersion device, namely spray packing tower. During its operation, the absorbing liquid is evenly sprayed on the top of the packing layer through the spray device at the top of the packing tower, and flows in membrane form from top to bottom along the packing layer, while the exhaust gas enters from the lower part of the tower and is discharged from the top of the tower through the packing layer. In this process, the exhaust gas is forced to change the direction, speed and absorption liquid repeatedly, which makes the waste gas and the absorption liquid have full contact reaction time in the filler layer, so that the harmful components in the exhaust gas can be fully absorbed and purified by the absorption liquid. The purified gas can be discharged up to standard after being defogged in the tower.
    针对本实验室所产生废气的种类,治理方案采用活性炭吸附和组合的方式进行处理。先进行活性炭吸附有机污染物、再进行填料喷淋塔吸收无机污染物。
    According to the types of waste gas produced in this laboratory, the treatment scheme adopts the method of activated carbon adsorption and combination. The organic pollutants were adsorbed by activated carbon and then absorbed by the packing spray tower.
    原因在于:
    The reason is:
    实验室无机废气中,基本以酸性废气为主,碱性废气一般存在于工业生产中,而 PH对于活性炭吸附效率的影响,一般随溶液pH值的增加而降低,pH值高于9.0时,不易吸附,pH值越低时效果越好。故采用先活性炭吸附,再进行填料喷淋组合方式。
    In the inorganic waste gas of laboratory, the acid waste gas is the main one, and the alkaline waste gas generally exists in industrial production. The influence of pH on the adsorption efficiency of activated carbon generally decreases with the increase of pH value of solution. When the pH value is higher than 9.0, it is not easy to absorb, and the better the effect is when the pH value is lower. So the combination of active carbon adsorption and packing spray is adopted.